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French Translation by Avice Robitaille  Swedish Translation by Daniela Milton 
pdf Version by College of Information Sciences and Technology,IST, Penn State University 
Dec. 29, 1995 Stanley V. Byers, Collaborator: Michael D. Byers 
This paper provides a physical systems model for the transmission of all forces that appear to act through a distance in an absolute vacuum, and for redefining the essence of nuclear particulate matter. The basic elements of this model are the existence of isotropic radiant frequencies in free space and in matter, and matter existing as interference patterns, distortions or deformations in the linear flows.
Matter's shadowing interactions with these non particulate radiant spectra cause forces of attraction and repulsion. A free body in open space is symmetrically illuminated with this radiant flow, and as it shields or shadows some of the radiation passing through it, the resultant forces are also symmetrically balanced.
As the Earth and planets interact with
the radiation, a shadow is formed around each planet.
A free body drifting into the shadowed radiant space
would be subjected to an unbalanced flow due to the
shadow from below. The radiant flow and force from above is no
longer balanced from below and a resultant unbalanced force or
radiant "pressure" toward Earth acts throughout
the free body. This force is normally called gravity
or " mass attraction ".
In the standard classical concept of matter, the
smallest stable nuclear particles consist of a collection of
multilayered concentric spinning radiant electromagnetic
energy waves independently existing in empty space. In this
new model of matter and forces the smallest stable nuclear
particles consist of interference patterns in the ever
present isotropic linear radiant individual spectra of space
in the form of standing wave vortices. If it were
possible to shield this new model of a particle from its
individual radiant spectra it would cease to exist, in the
same manner that a water whirlpool will vanish if the water
is removed.
In the standard classical models, if a particle could be
completely shielded from radiant spectra it would continue
to exist in empty space, independent of the infinite
frequency spectrum. In this model empty space cannot exist.
Each and every point in matter and in space in the universe
is completely permeated with the isotropic prime radiation. This radiant spectra is called prime radiation, it
is non particulate and does not have momentum or inertia. It
causes gravity, inertia and electromagnetic radiation, but
it is not electromagnetic radiation.
In the standard classical concept of electromagnetic radiation, all radiation in space had to originate from some form of matter. This may be true for the electromagnetic spectrum. In this model, matter is a distortion or deformation of the prime radiation and the radiation would continue to exist without the existence of matter. Yet, matter would cease to exist without the prime radiation. The source, cause and medium of the prime radiation frequencies are not proposed in this model.
In early versions of this paper the Prime Radiation was called Inertial Radiation or Prime Inertial Radiation. The intent was to demonstrate that this radiant sea was replacing the common concept of Inertial Space. The word "inertial" led many readers to misinterpret the term to mean that the radiation was particulate and exhibited momentum. This model would not be able to propose a first cause for inertia if this prime background radiation or its medium exhibited mass, inertia or momentum. In order to avoid confusion the term now used is Prime Radiation. A material Aether cannot exist in this model.
The
most familiar tangible example of this Prime radiation is the
Electrostatic ( E ) force field subspectra. When a sheet of paper is seen to move under the influence of a charged comb,
we are witnessing one clear and present example of force and motion due to
the allpervading
Prime force radiation,
Pe, under unbalanced flow conditions.
Physical
systems exist which allow us to actively interact with this E
subspectra,
but we are not yet able to interact with the Gravitational subspectra, except
for the passive actionreaction system of propellant discharge. Such empirical
examples as the E force field radiation,... demonstrate that the Prime radiation
and shadowing system is not just a theory,... but is the cause for the local forces
that only appear to be remote forces.
Visual evidence indicating the existence of this Prime Radiation and its E subspectra is presented in the section, Images of Radiation Flow.
The force from the effect of the omnidirectional radiant shadow emanating from a body in isotropic radiant space is exactly described by the inverse square law for projected area and or shadow density. For totally black shadows, the potential force at a distance (R) is directly proportional to the object's projected shadow area.
104.1 Projected area = Original Area / R squared
From projection geometry, when the distance is doubled, an object appears onehalf as tall and onehalf as wide and therefore has one quarter the apparent original area. Thus, the inverse square law with distance (R).
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For nonblack shadow bodies and cases near planet surfaces where shadow density is the predominant factor, the shadow density system is the virtual image of the light illuminance system and is described by the same inverse square law equation.
104.2 Shadow density = Original Density / RXR
104.3 Light Illuminance = Source Intensity / RXR
It is of interest to note that the two features of the shadowing effect, projected area and average density, can be exactly described, simultaneously, by one inverse distance squared equation.
In this model our normal empirical inverse square laws for the three force at a distance equations are this unified force radiant shadow equation. The unbalanced force is directly proportional to the shadow effect at that point. In any of the three force systems, objects shadowing the same radiant frequencies would appear to be attracting each other, but the unbalanced flow of radiation is the source of the force.
Each force system equation has its own force constant, determined by the dimensional units of the system and the interacting radiant spectral density.
104.4 Electrostatic Force F = KQ'Q"/RXR
104.5 Gravitational Force F = GM'M"/RXR
104.6 Magnetic Force F = UM'M"/RXR (directional)
Inertial force is treated in a later section of this paper. The strong force of nucleon attraction appears to be due to a stream sharing form of shadowing which is different than this inverse distance squared system and it's homogeneous field of unbalanced flow.
Sir Isaac Newton's laws of motion, circa 1600's, gave the description of how the force of gravity varied with distance, following the inverse distance squared equation, but he did not propose a cause for gravity or inertia in any of his publications. Although, the following quote, from a private letter to Robert Boyle, shows Newton did conceive of a cause for gravity that is essentially the duplicate of this radiation and shadowing model of remote forces. If Newton's term "ethereal spirit" is replaced with the term "prime radiation" in the following quote, the similarity of the concepts becomes obvious.
Quote "so may the gravitating attraction of the Earth be caused by the continual condensation of some other suchlike ethereal spirit [prime radiation]. . . in such a way . . . as to cause it (this spirit) [prime radiation] from above to descend with great celerity [speed] for a supply; in which descent it may bear down with it the bodies it pervades, with force proportional to the superficies [surfaces] of all their parts it acts upon." Unquote
The terms in brackets have been added to the original to aid in the comparison. It is satisfying and important to note that Newton's concept, as stated above, does not propose an Aether consisting of a vibrating particulate material .
The following statements found in his publication Principia Mathematica does not mention his above concept when he is discussing a cause for gravity.
Quote "I have not been able to discover the cause of those properties of gravity from the phenomena, and I frame no hypotheses....it is enough that gravity does really exist, and act according to the laws which we have explained, and abundantly serves to account for all the motions of the celestial bodies". Unquote
A letter by Sir Newton also expresses his firm opinion opposing the concept that gravity acted through empty space as an "inherent property of matter".
Quote "...that one body may act upon another at a distance through a vacuum without the mediation of anything else, by and through which their action and force may be conveyed from one to another, is to me so great an absurdity that , I believe no man, who has in philosophic matters a competent faculty of thinking, could ever fall into it." Unquote
Any radiant flow and shadowing model of remote force has the obvious inherent physical characteristics of:
Shielding and,
An upper limit to the force per unit area available.
Shielding will occur in a
group of objects when some objects are deprived of radiant
flow due to overlapping gray shadows, or black shadows or
streaming of the flow.
An upper limit to the available force
per unit area occurs when all flow is blocked in a
particular force spectrum system by total shielding.
The shadowing feature of remote force within our planetary system displays the characteristic of modifying the weight of some planets by shielding. Individual objects in a system do not necessarily cast only totally black shadows, if visible, the shadows would have many shades of gray. As gray shadow objects combine to form a body or planet, a given diameter is reached where the radiant spectrum incident on one surface does not reach the other surface. The shadow it then projects in a single direction in the solar system would have a black dot in the center and all shades of gray to the outer circumference of the shadow. For planets of this diameter, maximum surface gravitational force is nearly reached. Any remaining increase is due to additional shadowing of angular rays penetrating the planet that have vector components parallel to the diameter path.
Once a planet has achieved sufficient diameter to project partial black shadows, a portion of any added matter appears lost to the solar weight system. An example of this matter shielding characteristic is obtained by considering the apparent weight of our solar system planets and the planets' projected shadow areas, given in Table 1. Shielding is most evident when one plots planetary weight per cross sectional area vs the projected area, as in FIGURE 1. Weight per projected crosssectional area is here abbreviated as densare, and has the same units as pressure. The total shadowing effect depends on the average DENSity and AREa of the shadow, thus the abbreviation DENSARE.
For following comparisons it should be noted that DENSARE pressure and surface gravity are directly proportional and related by a constant. The densare graph, FIGURE 1, shows the densare of the smaller planets is essentially proportional to diameter. These small bodies are not large enough to stop all radiation, therefore, their integrated gray shadow DENSity and shadow AREa are exactly proportional to the total solar weight, mass and volume of matter. If all bodies had the same material density as Earth's and the shielding limit did not exist, all densare data points, including those for the large planets, would fall on the curve that relates projected area and volume on this semi log graph. For planets larger than Earth, total shielding and maximum radiant flow unbalance occurs. This total shielding is demonstrated by the plateau on the densare graph for planets larger than Earth. The densare, force per unit area, has reached the limit due to total shielding of the radiation and should be a universal constant for passive planets.
Radiant Pressure vs Projected Shadow Area
FIGURE 1 DENSARE GRAPH
PLANET WEIGHT vs PROJECTED AREA Table 1
BODY  DATA SOURCE* 
XAREA million sq. miles 
VOL. cubic miles 
DENSITY water = 1 
DENSARE ep14 tons per sq. mile 
Moon  TL  3.66  5.28ep9**  3.33  0.221 
Mercury  TL  6.65  12.9ep9  6.06  0.541 
"  SA  7.2    5.4  0.503 
Mars  TL  13.46  37.1ep9  4.12  0.524 
"  SA  13.96    3.9  0.509 
Venus  TL  45.13  228ep9  5.1  1.19 
"  SA  44.4    5.2  1.21 
Earth  TL  49.14  259ep9  5.52  1.34 
"  SA  49.34  229ep9  5.5  1.34 
Uranus  TL  683  20.2ep12  1.033  1.41 
"  SA  616      1.56*** 
Neptune  TL  743  15.24ep12    1.56*** 
"  SA  743    1.7  1.52 
Saturn  TL  4110  198ep12  0.685  1.52 
"  SA  4370    0.7  1.44 
Jupiter  TL  5809  340ep12  1.33  3.6 
"  SA  6167    1.3  3.39 
Sun  TL  587.7ep3  339ep15  1.41  37.4 
Planet Weight vs Projected Area 
Table 1
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A radiant shadow theory suggests that an upper limit of flow unbalance should exist. It is fortunate that one limit happens to exist within the planet sizes available in our solar system. Once this DENSARE limit is reached, planet weight is no longer proportional to volume but is proportional to projected shadow area. The projected shadows of the large planets are completely black in the gravitational spectrum and cannot respond to increased size by increased shadow darkness via increased density, but only by increased shadow size. If the exact diameter and solar system weight for each of the large planets was well established it appears that the shadow densare values would be a common constant near, 1.52 X 10 exp 14 tons mass per square mile, [75.7 X10^6 Lbs mass /Sq Inch] or [86.6 million psi at 1.141 gs ] indicated by the plateau in the graph in FIG. 1.
This suggests that the "Gas Planets" do not
consist of gas, but consist of the common solar system
gravel mix that exists in all of their surrounding moons and
the remaining solar system planets and moons. The apparent
low density and weight is here attributed to shielding in
the gravitational spectrum. If the large planets were
divided into Earth size portions, the hidden mass and weight
would reappear. Beneath any liquid and cloud layers of these
planets a planetary lander should find a surface structure
just as firm as that found on Venus, Mars and our Moon. A
sphere that consists of 90% gas would not have spots that
remain in the same position and latitude regardless of the
planets rotation. Due to the upper limit of radiation flow the effective
weight of the black shadow planets would not increase if the planets were solid
lead.
In a radiant pressure model it is obvious that the
pressure is due to the radiant flow. Yet the pressure unbalance field results from the
shielding
called DENSARE. The term DENSARE is used to demonstrate the importance of the unseen
shadow DENSity and AREa on the flow unbalance. This system
of unbalanced radiant flow and shadowing is similar to the action and
reaction of applied force and inertia, one cannot exist
without the other.
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With this radiant pressure model, the concept of "force increasing without bounds", as proposed for the existence of a black hole, is not realistic. Once the spectrum responsible for the force is totally blocked there is no further method to increase the force per unit area.
The current classical model of gravity gives no defined cause for the force. Therefore it is possible to attribute many features to the classical model such as black holes, warped space, and big bangs, since there is no defined mechanism with obvious restraints and upper limits. In any model without limits one can propose super dense nucleon stars and gravitational black holes that will swallow the universe. This upper limit of spectral flow naturally limits the size and force growth of planetary bodies, otherwise any sun or planet could grow to become a black hole.
The determination of the constant would be quite straight forward if the large black shadow planets did not have a gray shadow fringe. The relative proportion of the gray fringe area and black shadow area is determined by the material density of the planet's elements. A measure of the variation in the mix of elements is shown by the densities of the bodies smaller than earth. Our moon's density is 3.33 and Earth's is 5.5 with water as 1. Thus a minimum black shadow body, made of the moon's mix of elements, would have to have a diameter larger than a minimum black body made of Earth mix. The diameter ratios would be 5.5 to 3.33. When one neglects the apparently insignificant fringe areas, only two data points per black shadow planet are required to determine the densare constant; projected area and apparent weight. These are derived from diameter and satellite period, respectively.
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The inaccuracies in the available planet cross sectional area data, Table 1, is demonstrated by the following comparisons. Scientific American data yields an area for Neptune of 730 million square miles.(1) The TimeLife data yields an area of 607 million square miles. Two aberrant data points on the constant section of the densare curve were in error in the original data, and when corrected, fall very close to the preferred value of 1.52 exp 14 tons per square mile. The Scientific American data point for Uranus was apparently in error because of the diameter. With a given surface gravity of 1.17 times Earth's and a mass 14.6 times Earth's it must have a diameter of 3.53 times Earth's diameter. The value listed is 4.06 Earth diameters. TimeLife data gives 3.73 Earth diameters for the diameter of Uranus. For these reasons, the Scientific American densare is corrected to agree with its published surface gravity.
The TimeLife densare of Neptune differs from the favored Scientific American data by an 8.5% diameter difference. The TimeLife diameter is equal to the values published early in this century. The Scientific American data is consistent with the 1968 occultation measurements of 49,500 km. For this reason, the TimeLife densare data for Neptune is corrected to the new diameter.
With these above corrections there is now little spread in the densare data of nine relatively independent data points. The densare of the three passive large planets approach a common physical constant of 1.52 X10 exp 14 tons mass per square mile.
(1) The necessary data is available in the September 1975 issue of Scientific American and the book "The Universe," 1962, in the Life Nature Series and is given in Table No's. 1,2,3,and 4.
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The surface gravity data for the planets also shows the maximum shielding and limited radiant flow unbalance phenomenon seen on the planetary densare graph. The gravity data, Table 2, has had all the gravity values multiplied by 1.335 for comparison with the densare data. A separate graph of the surface gravity is not presented since the normalized surface gravity data is nearly a duplicate of the densare data. All moons and planets smaller than Earth have a surface gravity proportional to their diameter and material density.
Planets larger than Earth, except Jupiter, have the limited maximum gravity, regardless of their projected weight, actual amount of matter, or diameter. The limited maximum surface gravity in our neighborhood of space should prove to be a constant for all the black shadow nonradiating planets. The gravity limit occurs when a planet's diameter is large enough to shield all radiant flow from below and the maximum flow unbalance results at the surface. An object on the surface has equal balanced maximum flow from every compass point on the horizon and has maximum flow from overhead, but no radiant flow from below. Maximum surface gravitational force due to maximum radiant flow unbalance occurs with a planetary diameter of approximately 1.17 times that of Earth's. In our solar system the planets that are large enough to block all radiation should have the same maximum surface gravity of approximately 1.14 times that of Earth's.
The Infinite Plane Effect: An infinite plane that is thick enough to create a black shadow would have the maximum gravitational pressure at its surface. Since it is an infinite plane, it would also have the same maximum gravitational pressure at any distance from the plane. Of course, none of our planets are large enough to be considered an infinite plane at a distance. Yet, near the surface of large planets such as Saturn, an infinite plane effect may occur, where gravity does not decrease per the 1/R squared ratio because the projected area would not decrease per the 1/R squared ratio. The Black Shadow path Length, LBS, for earth mix has been calculated to be 4,800 miles. The diameter of Saturn is 72,300 miles. This would bring the black shadow as seen from the surface of Saturn within 4 degrees below the horizon. Thus, the apparent cross sectional area at the surface is larger than the true equatorial cross section that would be projected at a distance. Therefore gravity may remain nearly constant at the limit, for some distance above the surface.
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Orbital mechanics dictates that if gravity is constant with distance some peculiar orbit periods and radii for moons and rings of black shadow planets will result. Satellites with orbits close to the surface of these large planets would have wandering orbit paths, erratic periods and the periods would indicate a larger weight for the planet than satellites in remote orbits. The wandering orbit feature may account for the width and existence of the rings.
Jupiter's moons exhibit erratic periods with variations of 3 to 6 minutes, per the Jupiter section of the British astronomical society (Mens B.A.A. 883). At a given distance above the surface, the projected cross sectional area of the black shadow would approach the true cross sectional area of the planet. The gravitational pressure would then decrease with distance in proportion to the normal inverse square law for projected shadows. Since the black shadow of Earth is a large percentage (63.4%) of the total projected area, it is possible that the infinite plane effect may be evident to some small degree in our satellites orbits. This would cause satellites close to Earth to have a shorter period than expected in comparison to the period and distance of the Moon's orbit. The probe currently approaching Jupiter, if properly instrumented, should be able to measure and demonstrate the infinite plane effect, where gravity increases faster than the 1/R squared formula near the planet.
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There are two unexplained exceptions to this gravity limit and mass shielding phenomenon in our solar system: The Sun and Jupiter. They both "appear" to have a solar system weight significantly larger than that predicted by their crosssectional area and the gravity limit rule. Yet, their weight does not equal that predicted by their volume and an average mix of solar system elements. This indicates that some form of shielding does exist.
This also indicates that the magnetic energy structures associated with these bodies may shadow the gravitational spectrum and cause the "apparent" extra solar system weight. The Sun and Jupiter should have the same maximum projected DENSARE as that demonstrated by the other large planets and the gravity limit rule.
It is known that both of these bodies radiate significant energy in spectrums that present technology can detect. Jupiter radiates approximately twice as much heat as it receives from the Sun. Since these bodies radiate energy, it follows that they also absorb more radiance in other spectral ranges than the passive planets. This additional inflow may cause entrainment in the gravitational spectrum that would result in an effective shadow area larger than the actual physical crosssectional area. Occultation measurements with the sun and planets indicate refraction of light near the sun. This may be giving a false indication of its actual size. Some form of refraction may also be occurring in the prime spectrum.
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PLANET  GRAVITY  GRAVITY  DENSARE  DENSARE 
Earth = 1 SA *2 
Normalized * 
SA *2 ep14 tons / sq mile 
TL *2 ep14 tons / sq mile 

Moon  0.165  0.22    0.22 
Mercury  0.37  0.49  0.503  0.541 
Mars  0.38  0.51  0.509  0.524 
Venus  0.88  1.17  1.21  1.19 
Earth  1  1.335  1.335  1.34 
Uranus  1.17  1.56  1.56 *3  1.41 
Neptune  1.18  1.58  1.52  1.56 *3 
Saturn  1.141  1.52  1.44  1.52 
Jupiter  2.64  3.52  3.53  3.6 


SURFACE GRAVITY vs DENSARE  
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