Gravity Concepts, Sec. 40, Rev. June 4, 2016 ///
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This is a review,... and quote,... and graph of the Saxl and Allen gravity research work demonstrating and measuring the earth's surface gravity perturbations that occur during a solar eclipse. This section is to present the view that the gravity perturbations are caused by planetary gravitational shielding as described with this radiation and shadowing model of gravity. The radiation and shadowing model clearly predicts an increase in gravity within the umbra and penumbra of the eclipse shadow.
The Saxl and Allen work, Phy. Rev. D, 3:4: pg. 823-825 indicates
a 5% increase in local surface gravity during the eclipse and states
that this measured value is One Hundred Thousand Times (1X10^5)
greater than the expected change in gravity computed according to
the older theories. The paper also states: "Results of this order
of magnitude have been consistently observed in Harvard over a
period of 17 years."
It should be noted that older classical theories of gravity do not predict any gravitational step perturbation whatsoever in conjunction with any type of eclipse. With a radiation and shadowing model of gravity the cause of the step increase, as seen in this Saxl and Allen work, is readily evident from the shadowing and planetary geometry.
Abstract from the Saxl and Allen paper: Quote
"1970 Solar Eclipse as "Seen" by a Torsion Pendulum"
"During the solar eclipse of 7 March 1970, readings were taken and recorded electronically of the times required for the torsion pendulum to rotate through a given fixed part of its path, involving both clockwise and counterclockwise motions, on its first swing from rest. Significant variations in these times were observed during the course of the eclipse as well as in the hours just preceding and just following the eclipse itself. Between the onset of the eclipse and its midpoint there is a steady increase in the observed times. After the midpoint the times decrease suddenly and level off promptly to values considerably greater those observed before the eclipse. Furthermore, before the eclipse there is a periodic variation in these times. This strange periodicity was essentially repeated two weeks later at the same hours, though the actual values were somewhat greater than the earlier ones. These increases in actual values exceed by a factor of 10^5 those that can be explained by the attraction of the moon due to its change in position relative to the Sun and Earth. All this leads to the conclusion that classical gravitational theory needs to be modified to interpret these experimental facts". Unquote
The following graph is a photocopy of Saxl's and Allen's graph
Pendulum timing Vs the time of the eclipse duration.
Quote: "Times (seconds) required to traverse the fixed part of the path of oscillation (ordinates) Vs. the hour (Eastern Standard Time, EST) at which the observations were made, from about 10 a.m. until nearly 4p.m. (abscissas ). The full line shows observations made on 7 March 1970, the day of the total eclipse." Unquote
Ref:..1970 Solar Eclipse as "Seen" by a Torsion Pendulum
Saxl and Allen Phy. Rev. D Vol...3 No. 4 15 Feb. 1971
Quote "Conclusion (from Saxl and Allen via OCR program) "Quantitative observations made with a precise torsion pendulum show, in agreement with many earlier less precise recordings made at Harvard since 1953, that the times required to traverse a fixed fraction of its total angular path vary markedly during the hours before the eclipse and during its first half, i.e., up to its midpoint. Also the significant changes in these times do not coincide exactly with the astronomically determined onset, midpoint, and endpoint of the eclipse", (Note: marked a..b..c respectively on the above graph.)
"These variations are too great to be explained, on the basis of classical gravitational theory, by the relative change in position of the moon with respect to the earth and sun. This leads to the same conclusion arrived at by Allais, that classical gravitational theory needs to be modified to interpret his (and our) experimental results. Moreover, the findings with the torsion pendulum, the significant mass of which moves perpendicularly to the geogravitic vector, seem to indicate the possibility of a fine structure in these observations neither predicted nor recorded using the orthodox methods of quasi-stationary gravitational investigations." Unquote
Within a radiation shadowing model the sun is a black shadow object in the gravitational spectrum and any object that passes between a location on the earth and the sun will be lost in the area of the umbra since the objects shielding (mass) cannot increase the gravitational shadow size or density from that direction. If the Sun were not totally blocking the prime radiant flow, the gravitational shadows of the sun and moon would combine for normal increased "attraction" and no pendulum perturbations would occur. Since a local decrease of the overhead "attraction" of the sun and moon occurs when the moon hides in the sun's totally black gravitational shadow, a real increase in the earth's surface gravity results for the location within and moving with the visual umbra. This effect would be most noticeable if the sun and moon were directly overhead of the shadow location. The shadow would have to be normal (90 deg. & near the equator) to the surface of the earth to obtain the largest possible increasing perturbation of the local surface gravity.
This same shadowing mechanism accounts for the tidal depressions found under the moon's location when an eclipse is not occurring. The moon's shadowing does not allow maximum gravitational radiation flow into the earth. Therefore, the earth's surface gravity is reduced when the moon is directly overhead. Reduced surface gravity in a location results in a depression in plastic or liquid matter. Highest tides are not directly under the moon. The high tide effects result from the moon's gravity vector components acting tangentially to the oceans surface where the two zenith gravity vectors are not in opposing parallel.
With this view in mind it can be seen that an eclipse shadow near polar areas would not cause an increased surface gravity perturbation normal (90 deg. ) to the earth's surface. For the Earth's areas out side of the eclipse shadow the Moon's gravitational effect exists. For areas within the eclipse shadow the Moon has temporarily disappeared. Therefore, within the shadow of the eclipse the earth's plastic crust forms a bulge that conforms to a gravitational equipotential surface satisfying the inverse radius squared rule. Although counter intuitive, high gravity areas will cause bulges, not depressions, in liquid or plastic surfaces. The rising movement from a depression to a bulge will cause an inertial force downward on the pendulum. Thus increased gravity and the inertial force resulted in the total increased gravitational force perturbation as shown by Saxl and Allen's torsion pendulum.
It is also apparent that the step increase of the eclipse is equal to the change resulting from the position of the moon changing to the opposite side of the earth. When the moon is on the opposite side from the pendulum it has no effect on the surface gravity at the pendulum, since the moon is completely hidden gravitationally by the size of the earth's black gravitational shadow. In the eclipse case the Moon is hidden within the Sun's gravitational black shadow.
A radiation and shadowing model is the only known physical model that correctly predicts a perturbation during an eclipse and the characteristics of the tides. In that model there is a clear mechanical cause and effect logic that predicts the perturbation. The model also predicts a similar perturbation of the moon's surface gravity and an orbital path perturbation during a lunar eclipse. It is possible that the general recognition of these fundamental characteristics of gravity will lead to application experiments for interacting with the effects of gravitational and inertial forces upon an object without the need to rely on an inertial propellant mass.
There was also a time when we did not know how to interact with the remote forces of the nuclear, magnetic, electrostatic, inductive and EM radiation phenomena. Can there be physical science work of more importance than obtaining an understanding of these perturbations and seeking interaction with the remote forces of gravity and inertia?
An absence of topographical gravity variations on black shadow planets is a characteristic inherent in this theory. Small surface gravity variations would be expected on planets such as Earth, whose shadows are partially black and gray. Significant variations should appear on planets that are smaller than Earth and not large enough to shield all radiation and project no black shadow areas.
Mariner 9 tracking data shows that significant topographical gravity variations do occur on Mars. If Mars had an ocean there would be a two kilometer variation in sea level near the equator. J. Eberhart's work "A Matter of Gravity" reported in Sci. News , October 18, 1975 gives this data, and a map of the Mars gravity variations, FIGURE 3. The equipotential map shows the difference in sea level in kilometers that would exist if Mars was covered with water. The positive equipotential lines indicate sea level areas above normal due to high gravity. The negative equipotential lines indicate areas of weak gravity and low sea level. The two kilometer differential between the valley and peak of this imaginary sea on Mars is equal to 6,580 feet for comparison with our familiar local mountains. It is interesting to realize that one could not surf downhill on this 6,580 foot mountain of water.
Another predictable characteristic of this radiant shadow theory for gravity is symmetrical variations in gravity. If there is a path through a planet that results in dark or light shadowing, similar variations should appear at each end of the path. There are high gravity spots 180 degrees apart and low gravity spots 145 degrees apart on the Mars map. There is no explanation for this characteristic in the classical theory of gravity.
The two following thumbnail images are another version of the map showing the gravitational anomalies for Mars. The right image has been inverted in order that the anomalies that are on opposing sides of the planet can be compared. The large red anomaly in the lower right quadrant of the right image is geometrically on the opposing side of the planet in relation to the lower right quadrant of the left image. The original images are available from NASA's URL http://mars.jpl.nasa.gov/gallery/global/PIA02817.html
When the right image is printed on a transparency and placed over the left image, a very close comparison is seen between the shapes of the two large anomalies in the lower right quadrant. It would be expected that the anomalies would be identical if Mars had a completely homogeneous interior. These above maps of the gravitational anomalies of Mars have been obtained through the rather course process of a satellites radio signal analysis. It is expected that a better understanding of the gravitational shadowing variations will occur when and if actual satellite gravity measurements are available.
Since planet Earth is not large enough to have a totally black shadow and the limited maximum system gravity, some variations in sea level should be apparent. Any angular paths through the Earth that pass through lighter material should yield a lower sea level than the dark shadow areas. Because the majority of the shadow is black, variations in density should be muted. M. Parke, T. Dixon, and K. Hussey of JPL Labs report variations of 200 meters in the Earth's sea level. The data was obtained from NASA'S 1978 Seasat satellite.
The European Space Agency (ESA) has produced a new and improved map of the Earth's gravity field,July, 2010 AD...This map accentuates the symmetrical matching gravity anomalies which occur on opposing sides of Earth. A radiation system of gravity is the only theory of gravity that predicts the occurrence of this matching characteristic. It is expected that the -100 and +80 seen on the color legend of this map should have the unit of meters included. This would correspond to the above 1979 Seasat data.
The unmodified version of this gravity map may still be available at Nature site: http://blogs.nature.com/news/thegreatbeyond/2010/06/goce_depicts_gravity_in_high_r.html
While the topographical gravity variations are interesting, a major revelation in this Earth data is that the variations are ten times smaller than those on Mars and the Moon. The black shadow shielding (total) masks any variations with ray paths perpendicular to the surface.
This topographical gravity map for the moon demonstrates the large gravity anomalies that are ten times larger that those found on Earth. The anomaly variations for the Moon and Mars are in the range of 1000+ milli gals (1 gal = 1cm/s/s) . This delta measurement of 1000+ milli gals is approximately equal to one tenth of one percent of the Earths surface gravity.
If or when any satellite gravity data becomes available for any of the large black shadow planets, it is expected that the gravitational variations would yet be smaller than those of Earths. If significant variations do exist on the ringed planets they should be reflected in the shape of the rings. The orbital tracking of the ring matter is the same as satellite tracking of the Mars variations.
There is an unexpected difference in the tidal effect of the Sun and Moon. During a solar eclipse it is obvious that the projected areas of the Moon and Sun are nearly identical when viewed from the Earth's surface. If the Moon and Sun had gravity shadows with the same average density (DENSARE), the static gravitational force from each would be equal, due to the projected areas being equal at the Earth's position. Since the DENSARE of the Sun is 169 times that of the Moon's, the Sun's tidal effect is expected to be 169 times that of the Moon's. For the readers accustomed to the 1/R squared gravity calculations, the resulting multiplier is 179 for the mass data used here. Contrary to this expectation the tide tables show that the tidal action of the Moon is significantly greater than the Sun's.
It appears that the greater amplitude of the Moon's tidal oscillation may be caused by the larger variation of the Moon's gravitational effect for each daily rotation of the Earth. When the distance from a point on the Earth's surface to the Moon is changed by one Earth diameter during each rotation, the Moon's projected area changes approximately 3 percent. A 3 percent change in area translates directly into a three percent variation in the Moon's gravitational force since it is Densare times area. When the same calculation is made for the Sun the change is essentially zero percent since the Sun is about 400 times further away. In any mechanical system a variable force is necessary to build and sustain an oscillation. In the classical gravity field theory this variation would be due to the gravity gradient and relative displacement with the Earth's rotation.
The black shadow feature of the Earth's radiant geometry provides a second variable force in the tidal system driven by the Sun and Moon. As the Earth's rotation takes a sea into and out of the black shadow shielding area, the sea is subjected to the maximum variation in force available in relation to the projected gravitational shadows of the Sun and Moon. The gray shadow fringe area of the Earth's shielding provides a gradual transition from the no-shielding area to the full shielding of the black shadow area. As a sea passes through the black shadow shielding area it is nearly completely shielded from the gravitational effects of the Sun or Moon on the opposing side.
The following physical characteristics are readily predicted by this radiant pressure model for gravity. Some have been shown to exist with this paper. Others should be seen with a minimum of investigative efforts.
The Planetary weight shielding and limited surface gravity phenomenon are held to be independent proofs of the radiant pressure concept of remote force. Thus, the previously unexplained "attractive" force acting through a distance between bodies, is not an incomprehensible inherent attractive characteristic of matter,...but, is the shadowing property of radiant space and matter.
E. Saxl and Mildred Allen, 1970 Solar Eclipse as "Seen" by a Torsion Pendulum
E. Saxl and M. Allen, J.Appl. Phys. 40,2499 (1969).
M. Allen and E.J. Saxl, J.Appl. Phys. 40 2505 (1969).
W. A. Heiskanen and F. A. Vening Meiness,
THE EARTH AND ITS GRAVITY FIELD
McGraw-Hill, New York, 1958, p. 120
Maurice F. C. Allais. Aerospace Eng. 18 46 (1959)
Ullakko, K; Liu, Yong; and Xie, Zeliang
The 1990 Solar Eclipse as Seen by a Torsion Pendulum
(SEE N92-10362 01-70)
David Bohm, Wholeness and the Implicate Order
Michael Talbot, The Holographic Universe
Radiant Pressure Model of Remote Forces, S. Byers,
Web page address URL http://home.netcom.com/~sbyers11/grav11d.htm
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